She is four-time Soviet Women’s Champion (1927, 1931, 1937 and 1948), and was second in the Women’s World Chess Championship 1949-50, a point behind of Lyudmila Rudenko. She won the title of Women’s World Champion in 1956, finishing ahead of Rudenko and Elisabeth Bykova in a match tournament, but lost her title to Bykova in a match in 1958. As a member of the Soviet team, the winner of the first Chess Olympiad in 1957, three-time winner of Moscow championships.
Her father N. Rubtsov, Moscow’s famous chess player, who played against A.Alekhine in tournaments, taught her to play chess in her childhood. At the age of 17 she won the youth tournament among girls, organized by the newspaper “Komsomolskaya Pravda” (1926). In 1927 Rubtsova won the 1st USSR championship among women.
Rubtsova also played correspondence chess, and became the first Women’s World Correspondence Chess Champion in 1972 (she also finished second in the next championship, only losing the title to Lora Jakovleva on tie-break, and fifth in the one after that). As of today, she remains the only player, male or female, to become World Champion in both over-the-board and correspondence chess.